Death in childbirth was common enough that the term now-wife was coined to refer to a man’s present wife as compared to those that he had previously lost. Ministers often told their congregations that women were inferior to men and more inclined to sin and err. This is where all the ethnic diversity was. In the colonies, this could be seen in the evolution of Protestantism over the centuries. Between 1742 and 1753, roughly 1,000 Germans settled in Broad Bay, Massachusetts (now Waldoboro, Maine). The colony of Maryland was originally created with the aim of being a haven for English Catholics, most of which were well-to-do nobles who could not worship in public. • I can distinguish ... Can I describe the growth of Philadelphia? Merchants dominated seaport society and about 40 merchants controlled half of Philadelphia’s trade. africans ... How was the diversity of the thirteen American colonies as compared to the rest of the world? Many of the former territories of the British Empire are members of the Commonwealth of Nations. Even back then, what would become the Boston–Washington Corridor was clearly evident. Here you can explore what daily life was like in Colonial America. Slavery developed quickly in the Carolinas, largely because so many of the early migrants came from Barbados, where slavery was well established. Unlike New England, the mid-Atlantic region gained much of its population from new immigration. Sources of data. • Demonstrate knowledge of geography and mapping skills. 1880: Religious meetinghouses were important centers of community life in the colonies. The British Empire is famous for spreading itself to almost every corner of the globe. 3. [16], Mandates were forms of territory created after the end of the First World War. American colonies, also called thirteen colonies or colonial America, the 13 British colonies that were established during the 17th and early 18th centuries in what is now a part of the eastern United States.The colonies grew both geographically along the Atlantic coast and westward and numerically to 13 from the time of their founding to the American Revolution (1775–81). Spanish occupation and expulsion of settlers in 1782, Colony of the Bay Islands. Since then, many territories around the world have been under the control of the United Kingdom or its predecessor states. Describe the Middle Passage, the growth of the African population and their contributions including but not limited to architecture, agriculture, and foodways. Under colonial rule the cultural diversity of Amerindian peoples and the class differentiation within the Amerindian ethnic groups both were eroded. However, with extremely cheap land prices, many Protestants moved to Maryland and soon became a majority of the population. Here we read three descriptions of the city from 1702 to 1760 from a city resident (Cotton Mather), a colonist-visitor (Maryland physician Alexander Hamilton), and a visiting Englishman (Andrew Burnaby). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Immigration and migration patterns in the early colonies were diverse and varied greatly from one region to the next. Later groups of Mennonites came to North America from Switzerland, Prussia, the Ukraine, and Russia. The experiences of women during the colonial era varied greatly from colony to colony and among different ethnic groups. There were even differences in how people in one colony lived depending on whether they were living at the shore of the Atlantic Ocean or were living west along one of the rivers or streams. New England’s healthy climate (the cold winters killed the mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects) and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any of the colonies. Upon much of Ireland gaining independence in 1922 as the Irish Free State, the other territories of the Empire remained under the control of the United Kingdom. This became the main method of creating and governing colonies. There remain, however, 14 global territories which remain under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. Summarize the demography of early 18th-century New England and Pennsylvania. Some companies like the East India Company (the most famous), the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Royal African Company ruled large colonial possessions (especially in India), but the Hudson’s Bay Company took Canada, and the Royal African Company started to ship slaves from Africa to the West Indies. The Dutch were prominent in New York (around a quarter of the population), especially along the Hudson River Valley. Describe the ethnic diversity of the English Colonies in 1775? Chartered companies were usually formed, incorporated and legitimised under a royal charter. The Germans, comprising Lutherans, Reformed, Mennonites, Amish, and other sects, developed a rich religious life with a strong musical culture; collectively, they came to be known as the Pennsylvania Dutch. Georgia was envisioned by its founder, General Oglethorpe, as a colony which would serve as a haven for English subjects who had been imprisoned for debt–essentially a province for the resettlement of “the worthy poor.” Oglethorpe banned alcohol, disagreed with slavery, and thought a system of smallholdings more appropriate than the large plantations common in the colonies to the north. [7] Later as the white colonies gained more internal responsible government, the lower house began to supersede the (usually unelected) upper house as the colonial legislature, and the position of Premier emerged. Changing America Culture • Economic opportunity and the social mobility that came along with financial gain attracted colonists from many different locations to make the journey to America. People of African descent played various roles in the history of the Spanish colonies. a. Most of the colonies were slow to make profits, however, and the English investors often turned over their colonial charters to the settlers. The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century. United with England and Ireland as the Commonwealth of England. Shipbuilding, commerce, and fisheries were important in coastal towns. C. Many skilled trades, professionals, and merchants helped it to grow and prosper. They held a consultative position, however, and did not serve in administrative offices as cabinet ministers do. Name changed to Myanmar after a military junta in 1989. Describe European cultural diversity including the contributions of different ethnic and religious groups. B. Public schooling was rare outside New England. Methodists originally settled in New England but spread through the colonies, and Moravians also emigrated to Pennsylvania. Meanwhile, William Penn, who founded the colony of Pennsylvania in 1682, attracted many British Quakers with his policies of religious liberty and freehold ownership. How did they feel about this diversity? The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century. Similarly, when Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801 to form the United Kingdom, control over its colonial possessions passed to the latter state. The middle colonies were founded by many different ethnic and religious groups, aided by policies of tolerance. A tide of German immigration to Pennsylvania swelled between 1725 and 1775, with immigrants arriving as redemptioners or indentured servants. Harvard University, founded by Congregationalists, became a source of Unitarian training. However, after the passage of the Statute of Westminster the language of dependency on the Crown of the United Kingdom ceased, where the Crown itself was no longer referred to as the Crown of any place in particular but simply as "the Crown". [8], Charter colony is one of the three classes of colonial government established in the 17th-century English colonies in North America. It is also interesting to note that by 1775, Africans were the second largest ethnic group (20.0%) in the United States, behind the English (48.7%), and there were three times as many Africans as Scots (6.6%). These new churches gained converts and competed with older Protestant groups like Anglicans (members of the Church of England), Congregationalists (the heirs of Puritanism in America), and Quakers. Of the territories with a permanent population, all have at least some degree of internal self-government, with the United Kingdom retaining responsibility for defence and external relations. End of the, Ireland unites with Great Britain to form the, Joint British-Egyptian condominium established over, Cyprus (Annexation) Order in Council 1914, Financial difficulties result in Newfoundland losing its status as a dominion, Australia adopts the Statute of Westminster, backdated to 1939, New Zealand adopts the Statute of Westminster, Newfoundland becomes a province of Canada, The status of "colony" is renamed "dependent territory", Hong Kong is transferred to the People's Republic of China, The status of "British Dependent Territory" is renamed "British Overseas Territory", Queen Elizabeth II first monarch to be titled Queen of Canada (accession to the throne of Canada in 1952). Individuals could bring about their own salvation by accepting Christ, an especially welcome message for those who had felt excluded by traditional Protestantism—women, the young, and people at the lower end of the social spectrum. b. English colonies fought for their independence from the “Mother Country” of England. [2], Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century. By 1776, about 85% of the white population in the British colonies was of English, Irish, Scottish, or Welsh descent, with 9% of German origin and 4% Dutch. a. Old Ship Church, Hingham, Massachusetts, ca. Why Religious Freedom and Diversity Flourished in Early America Jam-packed exhibition features artifacts as diverse as Jefferson’s Bible, a steeple bell cast by Paul Revere and a storied Torah From the journals, memoirs, essays, and letters of eighteen people comes this commentary on the diversity of the colonies' white inhabitants. A number of countries (dominions) within the British Empire gained independence in stages during the earlier part of the 20th century. "Popular Law Library Vol 1 Introduction To The Study Of Law Legal History", Peace Treaties and International Law in European History, From the Late Middle Ages to World War One, Burgundian and Habsburg in the Low Countries, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Territorial_evolution_of_the_British_Empire&oldid=1003352374, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, English as a dominant or an official language, Northern part merged into Nigeria, southern part into the, Territory included former IBEAC territories and the strip of Sultan of Zanizbar's dominions on the coast of Kenya which fell within the British sphere of influence, Lands of Sultan of Zanzibar on coast administered with the Colony as one unit, Island leased from Spain so that Royal Navy could undertake anti-slavery operations on West Coast of Africa. British North America, the term usually applied to the British colonies and territories in North America after the US became independent in 1783 until Confederation in 1867. Charter companies were made up of groups of stockholders, usually merchants and wealthy landowners, who sought personal economic gain and, in some cases, wanted to advance England’s national goals. Founded in 1630 by the English Puritans of Massachusetts Bay colony, Boston remained the largest and wealthiest city in the Atlantic colonies. Most Jews in colonial America were of Dutch Sephardic descent. By 1775, that number had increased 10-fold to 2.5 million. By the end of the 1600s, a very wealthy class of rice planters who relied on slaves had attained dominance in the southern part of the Carolinas, especially around Charles Town. Slaves and free blacks from the Iberian Peninsula participated in the William Penn at age 22, possibly by Sir Peter Lely: William Penn advocated religious tolerance in the New World and strengthened the Quaker movement in North America. This class was comprised of powerful professions like doctors, ministers, lawyers and merchants and major community positions were filled by people from the Gentry class. A protectorate differs from a "protected state". The Congregational Church, founded by the Puritans, was not automatically joined by all New England residents because of Puritan beliefs that God singled out only a few specific people for salvation. Add your answer and earn points. Over 90% were farmers, with several small cities that were also seaports linking the colonial economy to the larger British Empire. Collectively, these territories are referred to as the British Empire. Education was widespread in the northern colonies, which had established colleges led by Harvard College, College of New Jersey (Princeton), and Yale College, while the College of William and Mary trained the elite in Virginia. The Moravians wished to serve as Christian missionaries for the different ethnic groups in America. This document set out the terms under which the company could trade, defined its boundaries of influence, and described its rights and responsibilities. However, this was purely a personal union, with Hanover maintaining its political independence otherwise, and so it is not usually considered to have formed part of the British Empire. 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