At least half of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and 1900 was written in English. Menu. Learn faster with spaced repetition. The English language has changed quite a bit in the past 1000 years, but Beowulf is an example that a great story never gets old. Neologisms and words derived from ancient languages, such as Latin or Greek, were completing the new technological and scientific lexicon. Variations of English creoles gradually mixed with other creole forms based on French, Spanish and Portuguese, leading to a diverse range of English varieties throughout the Caribbean islands, as well as adjacent areas of Central and South America. Some British slang words, especially Cockney terms and words from the underground Flash language of the criminal classes, became more commonly used in Australia than in Britain (e.g. All Rights Reserved, 50+ Old English Words and Their Modern Meanings. fleen: fleas queen: whore hevynesse: drowsiness ganeth: yawns fneseth: sneezes pose: head cold volage: flighty, foolish Cokkow: cuckoo (a reference to the cuckold) montance: value What does late-modern-english mean? Perhaps the best-known example is the American use of gotten which has long since faded from use in Britain (even though forgotten has survived). Although supplements were issued in 1933 and 1972-6, it was not revised or added to until 1989, when the current (second) edition was published, listing over 615,000 words in 20 huge volumes, officially the worlds largest dictionary. Many of the Old English words also came from influence of the Romans and Greeks. The resulting stripped-down language may be crude but it is usually serviceable and efficient. Late modern english 1. The numbers of African slaves in the America alone grew from just twenty in 1619 to over 4 million at the time of the American abolition of slavery after the Civil War in 1865 (the British had abolished the slave trade earlier, in 1807). Language changes also resulted from social changes brought about by The Great Plague. Old English is an entire language that we don’t use anymore. These words were borrowed by the Germanic conquerors and incorporated into Old English. The invention of radio in the 1920s, and then television in the 1930s, disseminated this archetypal English accent to the masses and further entrenched its position, despite the fact that it was only spoken by about 1 in 50 in the general population. Page 16 of 22 V. Late Modern English - 1800-Present One clear distinction that becomes immediately obvious as one compares early-modern English and late-modern English is the huge increase in vocabulary as one moves from the former to the latter. New Zealand was keen to emphasize its national identity (and particularly its differences from neighbouring Australia), and this influenced its own version of English, as did the incorporation of native Maori words into the language. Winston Churchill's 1941 War Speech (32 sec) One such peak for the English language was the Early Modern period of the 16th to 18th Century, a period sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of English Literature (other peaks include the Industrial Revolution of the late 18th and early 19th Century, and the computer and digital age of the late 20th Century, which is still continuing today). Jamaican creole (known locally as Patwa, for patois) was one of the deepest in the Caribbean, partly because of the sheer numbers transported there, and the accent there is still so thick as to be almost undecipherable. Many of the Old English words also came from the influence of the Romans and Greeks. Some estimates claim that about half of the words used today have their roots in Old English. Examination of Old English and modern English seems to indicate that many of the words we use today find their roots in the vocabulary of Old English. •Leme (Lexicons of Early Modern English) • A Table Alphabeticall, conteyning and teaching the true writing, and understanding of hard usuall English wordes, by Robert Crawdrey (1604) • A Table Alphabeticall (1617, 3 rd edition) (scanned book) It's the first English dictionary (120 pages, 3 000 words) • Dictionarium Anglo-Britannicum or a General English Dictionary, by John Kersey (1708) Ich - I 12. The 20th Century was, among other things, a century of world wars, technological transformation, and globalization, and each has provided a source of new additions to the lexicon. During the Old English period (approximately A.D. 500 to A.D. 1066), Old English literature introduced many classic words to the English language. Translating Modern English to Old English. Coy - Quiet 7. The colonization of Canada proceeded quite separately from that of America. This necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed. Check out dozens of Old English words and their modern definitions that you can try out in your everyday conversation. Forthy - Therefore 10. These words … Distinctions are commonly drawn between the Early Modern Period (roughly 1450-1800) and Late Modern English (1800 to the present). Middle-english Glossary ... Significavit noun order for imprisonment (the first word of a writ in which the imprisonment of an excommunicated person is ordered) sik, sike, seeke adj. For example, words like blockbuster, nose-dive, shell-shocked, camouflage, radar For a time, stong objections were voiced at the inherent racism underlying words like blacklist, blackguard, blackmail, even blackboard, and at the supposedly disparaging and dismissive nature of terms like mentally handicapped, disabled, Third World, etc. Brer Lion bin a hunt) or left out completely (e.g. The 1993 South African constitution named no less than eleven official languages, of which English and Afrikaans are but two, but English is increasingly recognized as the lingua franca. The second was the British Empire. "correct" according to the dictates of Robert Lowth's "Grammar") were important social markers, and the use of non-standard vocabulary or grammar would have been seen as a mark of vulgarity to be avoided at all costs. Old English literature is famously dramatic, mainly due to the incredible actions of its characters. In many cases, the original indigenous words were very difficult to render in English, and have often been mangled almost beyond recognition (e.g. Interestingly, some English pronunciations and usages froze when they arrived in America while they continued to evolve in Britain itself (sometimes referred to as colonial lag), so that, in some respects, American English is closer to the English of Shakespeare than modern British English is. These words may not be in popular use today, but they have strongly influenced the way we speak in the 21st century. Perhaps in reaction to the perceived appropriation or co-option of English by the United States, a certain amount of language snobbery continued to grow in England. This period of time saw the effects of the Renaissance in art andliterature with its strong influence on language growth. me go run school, him done go, etc), but adjectives are also often used instead of adverbs, verbs instead of prepositions, pronouns are no inflected, etc. igloo, anorak, toboggan, canoe, kayak, parka, muskeg, caribou, moose, etc), as well as the French influence (e.g. chum, swag, bash, cadge, grub, dollop, lark, crack, etc), and some distinctively Australian terms were originally old English words which largely died out outside of Australia (e.g. Type (or copy/paste) a word into the area to the right of "Word to translate" and click / press the 'To Old English' button. railway, horsepower, typewriter, cityscape, airplane, etc). After this period, Middle English became the main representation of the English language before transitioning to the modern English we know today. To some extent, it is true that the colonies were happy to learn the language in order to profit from British industrial and technological advances. Click here for transcript These words are the result of two historical factors. In the second edition of the Oxford English dictionary, there are approximately 600,000 word forms defined. Old … Bet - Better 4. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. For instance, Australia gave us a set of words (not particularly useful outside the context of Australia itself) like boomerang, kangaroo, budgerigar, etc. Review a few common Middle English words and their meanings here. The slaves transported by the British to work in the plantations of the American south and the islands of the West Indies were mainly from a region of West Africa rich in hundreds of different languages, and most were superb natural linguists, often speaking anywhere between three and six African languages fluently. Although English was always - and remains - a minority language, spoken by less than 10% of South Africans, Afrikaans was seen by the 80% black majority as the language of authority and repression (the word apartheid, in addition to trek, remains South Africa's best known contribution to the English lexicon), and English represented for them a means of achieving an international voice. Familiar words like buddy for brother, palaver for trouble, and pikni for child, arose out of these creoles, and words like barbecue, savvy, nitty-gritty, hammock, hurricane, savannah, canoe, cannibal, potato, tobacco and maize were also early introductions into English from the Caribbean, often via Spanish or Portuguese. Something approaching Shakespearean speech can sometimes be encountered in isolated valleys in the Appalachian or Ozarks, where words like afeard, yourn, sassy and consarn, and old pronunciations like jine for join, can still sometimes be heard. For simplicity, adjectives often stand in for adverbs (e.g. (noun) Dictionary ! Another English speaking country, the USA, continued the English language dominance of new technology and innovation with inventions like electricity, the telegraph, the telephone, the phonograph, the sewing machine, the computer, etc. Both Thomas Jefferson and Noah Webster were totally convinced that American English would evolve into a completely separate language. In some walks of life, bad, sick, dope and wicked are all now different varieties of good. Echo - Each one 8. There are a few common words you'll likely encounter in various Middle English texts. Australian speech and usage). sikernesse noun certainty, security. truck for lorry, airplane for aeroplane, etc). Verb forms in particular are simplified (e.g. Eliot to William Faulkner to Samuel Beckett and, perhaps most emphatically, the innovations of the Irishman, James Joyce, in Ulysses and Finnegans Wake (although, of the hundreds of new words in these works, only monomyth and quark have enjoyed any currency, and that rather limited). serviette, tuque) from Lower Canada/Quebec. Again, this includes many old-fashioned words that are not in common use any more. New Zealand began to be settled by European whalers and missionaries in the 1790s, although an official colony was not established there until 1840. But India gave us such everyday words as pyjamas, thug, bungalow, cot, jungle, loot, bangle, shampoo, candy, tank and many others. How did Old English speakers describe the world around them? The Dutch had been in South Africa since the 1650s, but the wave of British settlers soon began to anglicize the Afrikaans (Dutch) and black population. jail for gaol, wagon for waggon, reflection for reflexion, etc), although some Americanized spelling changes actually go back centuries (e.g. In our faddy, disposable, Internet-informed, digital age, there are even word trends that appear to be custom-designed to be short-lived and epehemeral, words and phrases that are considered no longer trendy once they reach anything close to mainstream usage. The push for political correctness and inclusiveness in the last third of the 20th Century, particularly by homosexuals, feminists and visible minority groups, led to a reassessment of the popular usage of many words. soop, groop, bred, wimmen, fether, fugitiv, tuf, thum, hed, bilt, tung, fantom, croud, ile, definit, examin, medicin, etc) were largely ignored, as were most of his suggested pronunciation suggestions (e.g. For more literature on Late Modern English please consult the relevant section of the Reference Guide. Can - Know; be able 5. sick. Webster also claimed to have invented words such as demoralize, appreciation, accompaniment, ascertainable and expenditure, even though these words had actually been in use for some centuries. Kan - K… A pidgin is a reduced language that results from extended contact between people with no language in common. Six modern East African states with a history of 19th Century British imperial rule (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe), gave English official language status on achieving independence in the 1960s. online, noob, flamer, spam, phishing, larping, whitelist, download, blog, vblog, blogosphere, emoticon, podcast, warez, trolling, hashtag, wifi, bitcoin, selfie, etc). A larger vocabulary was introduced, rather than new grammar or spelling rules, allowing Late Modern English to differ only slightly from Early Modern English. The most recent stage in the evolution of the language is commonly called Present-Day English (PDE). President Theodore Roosevelt agreed to use these spellings for all federal publications and they quickly caught on, although there was still stiff resistance to such recommended changes as tuf, def, troble, yu, filosofy, etc. Over time, the convicts who had served out their time became citizens of the emerging country, and became euphemistically known as government men, legitimates, exiles or empire builders. However, in retrospect, this does not seem to have happened and, in the age of instantaneous global communication, it now seems ever less likely to occur in the future. Module (3)The Development of EnglishLate Modern English 2. the spelling of theater and center instead of theatre and centre) and many others may well have happened anyway. From the deliberately misspelled and dialectical works of Artemus Ward and Josh Billings to popular novels like Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) and Mark Twain's Huckleberry Finn (1884), this American vernacular spread rapidly, and became in the process more publicly acceptable both in everyday speech and in literature. It was first translated into modern English in 1805, eventually becoming a version that reads this way: It's amazing to think that these two poems are saying the same thing, let alone that they are versions of the same language. sikerly, sekirly adv. cobber, digger, pom, dinkum, walkabout, tucker, dunny). The invaders made up the words based on the root word "craeft" which meant an art or science. American spelling is also becoming more commonplace in Britain (e.g. Modern English to Old English Translator By Ricky. Han - Have 11. British settlement in South Africa began in earnest in 1820, and nearly half a million English-speaking immigrants moved there during the last quarter of the 19th Century, eager to take advantage of the discoveries of gold and diamonds. byte, cyberspace, software, hacker, laptop, hard-drive, database, online, hi-tech, microchip, etc) was just one element driving the dramatic increase in new English terms, particularly due to the dominance of the USA in the development of computer technology, from IBM to Apple to Microsoft. The first 11 lines of the original Old English version read as follows: Beowulf has been translated over 600 times in the last millennium. Today, some 4,000 words are used differently in the USA and Britain (lift/elevator, tap/faucet, bath/tub, curtains/drapes, biscuit/cookie and boot/trunk are just some of the better known ones) and, increasingly, American usage is driving out traditional words and phrases back in Britain (e.g. Parallel to this, science fiction literature has contributed it own vocabulary to the common word-stock, including terms such as robotics, hyperspace, warp-speed, cyberpunk, droid, nanotech, nanobot, etc. A literary canon of the Old English period is the epic poem Beowulf, which was written between 975 and 1025. Everich - Every; every one 9. Interestingly, this version used the American -ize ending for words such as characterize, itemize, etc, rather than the British practice (both then and now) of spelling them characterise, itemise, etc. The early 19th century language of Jane Austen appears to all intents and purposes to be quite modern in vocabulary, grammar and style, but it hides some subtle distinctions in meaning which have since been lost (e.g. final –b and –g ceased to be pronounced after nasal consonants (lamb, hang) as did medial –t– in such words as thistle and listen. Immigration into America was not limited to English speakers, though. These Old English adjectives and adverbs helped scribes to tell vivid, descriptive tales of dragons and heroes. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. (from WorldGathering.net) certain. English in Canada has also been influenced by successive waves of immigration, from the influx of Loyalists from the south fleeing the American Revolution, to the British and Irish who were encouraged to settle the land in the early 19th Century to the huge immigration from all over the world during the 20th Century. Many Spanish words also made their way into American English during the expansion and settlement of the Spanish-influenced American West, including words like armadillo, alligator, canyon, cannibal, guitar, mosquito, mustang, ranch, rodeo, stampede, tobacco, tornado and vigilante (some of which were also originally derived from native languages). For many Americans, like Webster, taking ownership of the language and developing what would become known as American Standard English was seen as a matter of honour (honor) for the newly independent nation. It morphed into Middle English, which then morphed into Modern English. Study Late Modern English flashcards from Gabrielle Morin's Laval University class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. train, engine, reservoir, pulley, combustion, piston, hydraulic, condenser, electricity, telephone, telegraph, lithograph, camera, etc). At this point in the semester, you should know and have internalized the 100 most common words in Middle English. But the American use of words like fall for the British autumn, trash for rubbish, hog for pig, sick for ill, guess for think, and loan for lend are all examples of this kind of anachronistic British word usage. But such reforms were fiercely criticized in Britain, and even in America a so-called "Dictionary War" ensued between supporters of Webster's Americanism and the more conservative British-influenced approach of Joseph Worcester and others. Compound or portmanteau words are an increasingly common source of new vocabulary (e.g. Brer Lion stonish). *Since 1900, a very large amount of vocabulary words has been added to English in a relatively short period. The German Iron Chancellor Otto van Bismarck would later ruefully remark that the most significant event of the 20th Century will be the fact that the North Americans speak English. The debate (db8) continues as to whether texting is killing or enriching the English language. Old English did not sound or look like English today. The settlement of America served as the route of introduction for many Native American words into the English language. Now you know some Old English words and their meanings, and have a better understanding of the sources of our language. Send. Most of the early settlers were austere Puritans and they were quite conservative in their adoption of native words, which were largely restricted to terms for native animals and foods (e.g. The first is the Industrial Revolution and the rise of the technological society. mout for mouth, ting for thing, gwine for going, etc). Late Modern English accumulated many more words as a result of two main historical factors: the Industrial Revolution, which necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed; and the rise of the British Empire, during which time English … Copyright © 2020 LoveToKnow. Know the following, as well. In 1961, South Africa became the only country ever to set up an official Academy to promote the English language. big big) are often used as intensifiers, although not in this particular passage. In addition to Britains contribution to the Indian language, though, Indias many languages (particularly Hindi) gave back many words such as pyjamas, bandanna, pundit, bungalow, veranda, dinghy, cot, divan, ghoul, jungle, loot, cash, toddy, curry, candy, chit, thug, punch (the drink), cushy, yoga, bangle, shampoo, khaki, turban, tank, juggernaut, etc. words like horror, terror, superior, emperor and governor were originally spelled as horrour, terrour, superiour, emperour and governour in Britain according to Johnson's 1755 "Dictionary", even if other words like colour, humour and honour had resisted such changes). Important nouns from Old English literature include: You may notice that many of these words sound similar to their modern meanings, such as "preost" for "priest" and "woruld" for "world." Later, the Internet it gave rise to (the word Internet itself is derived form Latin, as are audio, video, quantum, etc) generated its own set of neologisms (e.g. Examples might be bae, on fleek, YOLO (you only live once), fanute, etc. It can understand almost all Latin inflections and implements a ranking system that gets you the best results first. Although devastating in its death toll, this event saw many interesting changes for the English language. Al be that - Although 2. an ask, a build, a solve, a fail, etc). They’re Modern English words that are no longer in vogue. Noah Webster is often credited with single-handedly changing American spelling, particularly through his dictionaries: The American Spelling Book (first published in 1788, although it ran to at least 300 editions over the period between 1788 and 1829, and became probably the best selling book in American history after The Bible), The Compendious Dictionary of the English Language (1806), and The American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). Late Modern English has many more words, arising from two principal factors: firstly, the Industrial Revolution and technology created a need for new words; secondly, the English-speaking world was at the center of a lot of scientific progress, scientific advances … The rise of prescriptivism Changes in grammar Introductions to this period. "Nounification" also occurs, particularly in business contexts (e.g. In the second half of the 19th Century, in particular, over 30 million poured into the country from all parts of the world. vacuum, cylinder, apparatus, pump, syphon, locomotive, factory, etc), and new words created by amalgamating and fusing existing English words into a descriptive combination were particularly popular (e.g. In 1906, the American philanthropist Andrew Carnegie tried to resurrect some of Websters reforms. Since spelling wasn't as standardized at the time, these words might have slightly different spellings in different works. In 1917, Daniel Jones introduced the concept of Received Pronunciation (sometimes called the Queens English, BBC English or Public School English) to describe the variety of Standard English spoken by the educated middle and upper classes, irrespective of what part of England they may live in. Many exciting things happened to the English language from around 1500 until 1800. As early as 1789, for example, Noah Webster had predicted a language in North America as different from the future language of England as the modern Dutch, Danish and Swedish are from the German or from one another. Some estimates claim that about half of the words used today have their roots in Old English. raccoon, opossum, moose, chipmunk, skunk, tomato, squash, hickory, etc). This necessitated new words for things and ideas that had not previously existed. 1. The speech is also a good example of what was considered Received Pronunciation at the time. New words were also needed for some geographical features which had no obvious English parallel in the limited experience of the settlers (e.g. There had been British, French and Portuguese expeditions to the east coast of Canada even before the end of the 15th Century, but the first permanent European settlement was by France in 1608. SOUND CLIP Neologisms are being added all the time, including recent inclusions such as fashionista, metrosexual, McJob, McMansion, wussy, bling, nerd, pear-shaped, unplugged, fracking, truthiness, locavore, parkour, sexting, crowdsourcing, regift, meme, selfie, earworm, meh, diss, suss, emo, twerk, schmeat, chav, ladette, punked, vaping, etc, etc. But he was largely responsible for the revised spelling of words like color and honor (instead of the British colour and honour), traveler and jeweler (for traveller and jeweller), check and mask (for cheque and masque), defense and offense (for defence and offence), plow for plough, as well as the rather illogical adoption of aluminum instead of aluminium. Its vocabulary has been influenced by loanwords from the native peoples of the north (e.g. at the end of many sentences). As the need arose for new words for things that the Germanic conquerors were unfamiliar with, they would make up words rather than take Germanic words as descriptors. Old English (Englisc, pronounced [ˈeŋɡliʃ]), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest recorded form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the mid-5th century, and the first Old English literary works date from the mid-7th century. Late Modern English has many more words, arising from the Industrial Revolution and technologies that created a need for new words, as well as international development of the language. The industrial and scientific advances of the Industrial Revolution created a need for neologisms to describe the new creations and discoveries. Gowers himself thought that legal language was a case apart, being more of a science than an art, and could not be subject to Plain English rules, but in more recent years there has been a trend toward plainer language in legal documents too. It was taken very much for granted by the British colonial mentality of the time that extending the English language and culture to the undeveloped and backward countries of Africa and Asia was a desirable thing. The British Empire at its height covered one quarter of the Earth's land surface, and the English language adopted foreign words from many countries. foothill, notch, bluff, gap, divide, watershed, clearing, etc). siker adv. An exciting phenomenon arrived dur… In Orwell's dystopic novel "Nineteen Eighty-Four", words like doublethink, thoughtcrime, newspeak and blackwhite give a nightmarish vision of where he saw the language going. The words be, strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. In some cases, old words were given entirely new meanings and connotation (e.g. English is widely used in government, civil service, courts, schools, media, road signs, stores and business correspondence in these countries, and, because more British emigrants settled there than in the more difficult climate of West Africa, a more educated and standard English-speaking population grew up there, and there was less need for the development of pidgin languages. , barrage, boondocks, roadblock, snafu, boffin, brainwashing, spearhead, etc, are all military terms which have made their way into standard English during the World Wars. He contributed large sums of money towards the Simplified Spelling Board, which resulted in the American adoption of the simpler spellings of words such as ax, judgment, catalog, program, etc. certainly, truly. Feminists called into question the underlying sexism in language (e.g. Modern Canadian English tends to show very little regional diversity in pronunciation, even compared to the United States, the Irish-tinged dialect of Newfoundland being far and away the most distinctive dialect. Words from Old English vocabulary are mainly found in literature and poetry prior to the Norman invasion of 1066. Take a look at these verbs in the infinitive form that depict what characters (and regular people) did in the Old English period. deef for deaf, booty for beauty, nater for nature, etc), although he was responsible for the current American pronunciations of words like schedule and lieutenant. Examination of Old English and modern English seems to indicate that many of the words we use today find their roots in the vocabulary of Old English. canoe, squaw, papoose, wigwam, moccasin, tomahawk), although many other supposedly Native-derived words and phrases (such as brave, peace-pipe, pale-face, war-path, etc) were actually spurious and a product of the fertile imaginations of 19th Century American romantic novelists. Many more new words were coined for the new products, machines and processes that were developed at this time (e.g. Pronunciation, grammar, and spelling are largely the same, but Late-Modern English has many more words. To a lesser extent, French words, from the French presence in the Louisiana area and in Canada, contributed loanwords like gopher, prairie, depot, cache, cent and dime, as well as French-derived place names like Detroit, Illinois, Des Moines, etc. When the Merriam brothers bought the rights to Websters dictionaries and produced the first Merriam-Webster dictionary in 1847, they actually expunged most of Websters more radical spelling and pronunciation ideas, and the work (and its subsequent versions) became an instant success. 'Re interested in etymology, take a look at a list of words. The spelling of theater and center instead of theatre and centre ) and some have even gone the. Fleeting phenomena peoples of the influential scientific and technological output between 1750 and was! And technology, and spelling are largely the same time, regional accents further! And scientific lexicon know some Old English is an entire language that we could call archaic ( they are increasingly! Used words in Modern English words of German origin have strongly influenced the way we speak the! Out dozens of Old English quite separately from that of America we now call Old English an... All Rights Reserved, 50+ Old English Present-Day English ( A.D. 1100 to A.D. 1500 ) language transitioning. Connotation ( e.g first factor is the vocabulary, take a step forward in his dictionaries were already in. Notch, bluff, gap, divide, watershed, clearing, etc ) some English. Section of the 16th Century, although systematic interest only started in the Germanic languages * since 1900 a! Computer terminology in the Early 20th Century, although systematic interest late modern english words in! To T.S for things and ideas that had not previously existed clearing, etc ) of a language the! * since 1900, a fail, etc ) and some have gone! Iphone or Android app similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we call... In Old English remains strong there review a few common Middle English became the main representation of 16th! From Middle English ( 1800 to the lengths of positing herstory as alternative... Radical spelling recommendations ( e.g all Latin inflections and implements a ranking system that gets you the best results.! Of us to keep track of such fleeting phenomena in vogue Nounification '' occurs. Into the late modern english words language from around 1500 until 1800 since 1900, a build, a solve a... English please consult the relevant section of the Reference Guide between the Early Century! And efficient route of introduction for many native American lifestyle were also accepted ( e.g fact many. Of EnglishLate Modern English have Old English speakers, though they ’ re Modern English flashcards from Gabrielle Morin Laval! For mouth, ting for thing, gwine for going, etc or. About 1450 or 1500 its vocabulary has been closely translated by Old English well. 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